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Guidelines for Reporting - Schools and Daycare

Schools and day cares can play a major role in helping to reduce or prevent the incidence of illness among children and adults in our communities. Encouraging good hand hygiene and following cleaning recommendations contribute to a safe and healthy learning environment for children. When schools and day cares report illness to their local health department (LHD), public health specialists can assist them with disease prevention and control guidance. This document provides schools with general information on what steps they can take to prevent and control communicable disease.

Am I required to report Communicable Diseases to the Health Department?
Michigan Law requires schools and childcare centers to report specific diseases according to Act No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1978, which states that physicians, laboratories, primary and secondary schools, child daycares, and camps are required to report the occurrence or suspected occurrence of any disease, condition, or infections as identified in the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) CD rules to your LHD within 24 hours.

It is important for schools and daycares to report to their LHD for a number of reasons, including:

  • To identify disease trends, outbreaks, and epidemics
  • To enable preventative treatment and/or education
  • To target prevention programs, identify care needs, and allocate resources efficiently
  • To inform epidemiological practice and research
  • To evaluate the success of long-term control efforts
  • To assist with local, state, national, and international disease surveillance efforts

What does Michigan law state regarding children who are NOT vaccinated or up-to-date on their vaccine preventable immunizations as it relates to exclusion from participation in schools and/or daycares?
Michigan law states a teacher or principal shall not permit a child to enter or attend school unless a certificate indicating that a minimum of 1 dose of immunizing agent against each of the diseases specified by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services has been received and certified to by a health professional or local health department. A parent, guardian, or person in loco parentis having a child registered with only these minimum doses of immunizing agents shall present an updated certificate of immunization within 4 months after initial attendance showing that the immunizations have been completed as prescribed by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services.

What diseases require reporting?
The following is a list of conditions required to be reported by schools, child-care centers, and camps. School personnel are not expected to be familiar with every disease listed below.
List of Reportable Diseases

  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Anaplasmosis)
  • Arboviral encephalitides, neuro‐ and non‐neuroinvasive:
  • California serogroup, Eastern Equine, Powassan
  • St. Louis, Western Equine, West Nile
  • Babesia microti (Babesiosis)
  • Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
  • Blastomyces dermatitidis (Blastomycosis)
  • Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)
  • Brucella species
  • Burkholderia mallei (Glanders)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis)
  • Campylobacter species
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Chlamydophila psittaci (Psittacosis)
  • Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
  • Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)
  • Coccidioides immitis (Coccidioidomycosis)
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
  • Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever)
  • Cryptosporidium species
  • Cyclospora species
  • Dengue virus
  • Ehrlichia species
  • Encephalitis
  • Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis)
  • Escherichia coli, O157:H7
  • Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
  • Giardia species
  • Guillain‐Barre Syndrome
  • Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid)
  • Haemophilus influenza
  • Hantavirus
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
  • Hepatitis, viral
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Hepatitis B virus, (HBsAg), especially in pregnant women
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Hepatitis D virus
  • Hepatitis E virus
  • Histoplasma capsulatum (Histoplasmosis)
  • HIV
  • Influenza virus (Weekly aggregate counts)
  • Pediatric mortality, report individual cases
  • Novel Influenza viruses
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Legionella species
  • Leptospira species
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Measles virus (Measles/Rubeola)
  • Meningitis
  • Mumps virus
  • Mycobacterium leprae (Leprosy or Hansen•fs disease)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Tuberculosis)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea)
  • Neisseria meningitidis, sterile sites (Meningococcal Disease)
  • Orthopox viruses (including: Smallpox, Monkeypox)
  • Plasmodium species (Malaria)
  • Poliovirus
  • Prion disease (Including: CJD)
  • Rabies virus
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Rickettsia species (Spotted Fever and Typhus Group)
  • Rubella virus
  • Salmonella species
  • Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Fever)
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
  • Shigella species
  • Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA), outbreaks only
  • Staphylococcus aureus, (VISA/VRSA)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Streptococcus pyogenes, group A
  • Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS)
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome (non•]Streptococcal)
  • Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
  • Trichinella spiralis (Trichinellosis)
  • Varicella (Chickenpox)
  • Vibriosis (Cholera)
  • Vibrio cholera
  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
  • Yellow fever virus
  • Yersinia enterocolitica (Yersiniosis)
  • Yersinia pestis (Plague)


When should a child be excluded from school or daycare?
As a general guidelines, children with fever (temp. 100.4oF or greater), vomiting, severe diarrhea or those too sick to have meaningful interaction should be excluded from school or daycare. The table below provides guidance for some of the most common childhood illnesses.

DISEASE
EXCLUSION
CHICKENPOX (Varicella
Exclude until lesions are dry and crusted.
COLD SORES
Exclusion not required.
CONJUNCTIVITIS (Pink Eye)
Exclude until 24 hours of treatment or until symptoms resolve. Allergic conjunctivitis does not require exclusion.
SALMONELLA: Typhi
Exclusion until permission from the Health Department or health care professional.
SHIGELLA
Exclusion until permission from the Health Department or health care professional.
FIFTH DISEASE (Erythema Infectiosum)
Exclusion not required.
HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE
Exclusion not required.
HEPATITIS A
Exclude until approved by a health care professional.
IMPETIGO
Exclude until 24 hours of antibiotic treatment.
LICE
Exclude at end of school day. May return after treatment (or if NO NITS, only when this is school policy).
MONONUCLEOSIS
Exclusion not required.
PERTUSSIS (Whooping cough)
After 5 days of treatment or 21 days after onset if no treatment is prescribed.
RINGWORM
Exclusion not required (should be treated).
SCABIES
Exclude until treated.
STAPH SKIN INFECTIONS (including MRSA)
Boils and draining lesions to be covered. Exclusion not required.
STREP THROAT AND SCARLET FEVER
Exclude until 24 hours of antibiotic treatment
TUBERCULOSIS
Exclusion until permission from the Health Department or health care professional.
UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION
Exclude until fever is gone.

 

Where can I learn more information?
For complete recommendations, please refer to the “Managing Communicable Diseases in Schools” document from the Michigan Department of Education and Health and Human Services.
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